There is nothing banal about the evil that these old men did. Without them, the Nazi extermination machine would not have functioned.

Imagine for a moment that, when you were a child, all... read more

Vladimir Putin has systematically worked to rehabilitate the image of Stalin, downplaying his record of mass murder while celebrating his role as the architect of victory in World War II. But... read more

Stalin erased his enemies, and North Korea still airbrushes them out. American universities should make sure they don’t go into the same business.

It is one of William... read more

Timothy Snyder’s Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin was both critically acclaimed and fiercely denounced. Its detractors accused the Yale historian of relativizing the Holocaust... read more

In the final days of World War II, Kurt Weill wrote a letter to his wife, Lotte Lenya, who was in New York, from the Hotel Bel-Air in Los Angeles. The couple had fled Germany after Hitler had... read more

In November 1938, as Hitler was preaching his gospel of hate, French Prime Minister Léon Blum delivered a speech to the International League Against Anti-Semitism about “the tragic Jewish question... read more

I realized early in my life that I had a real fear of heights. As a Cub Scout I was hoisted by a rope onto a high branch of a tree to dislodge a Frisbee that was caught there, and I was suddenly... read more

Here’s a generally accepted syllogism: The Weimar Republic saw an explosion in the arts, particularly of modern forms like expressionist painting and atonal music. When Hitler swept away the... read more

Even before the current swoon of the ruble, the signals were all there that Vladimir Putin had embarked on a course that is increasingly isolating his country, undermining its long-term economic... read more

So many anniversaries, such remarkable transformations—that is the story of Poland in 2014 that we are celebrating in this issue of CR. Those of us with Polish... read more