Vladimir Putin loves projecting the image of a strongman, whether it is by riding bare-chested on a horse or striding through the bush, also shirtless, with a rifle in his hands, playing the role... read more

By Andrew Nagorski

Most Russians need no convincing that the Red Army’s grueling victory at Stalingrad was the most important event of World War II. Many Western historians concur that it... read more

When Adolf Hitler launched the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, he was hoping that Great Britain and France would not live up to their pledges to come to that country’s defense. Foreign... read more

In January 1935, Philip Kerr, the British Liberal politician better known as Lord Lothian, traveled to Berlin for a series of meetings with top Nazi officials, culminating in a two-hour session... read more

At the turn of the last century, Sigmund Freud shocked the world with what biographer Peter Gay called “his portrayal of man, the insatiable animal pushed and pulled by unrespectable, largely... read more

In 1873, Sigmund Freud enrolled at the University of Vienna, but by his own admission he was “decidedly negligent” with his studies, passing his medical exams for his doctorate eight years later,... read more


The Secret History of Pius XII, Mussolini and Hitler
By David I. Kertzer. 672 pp. Random House, 2022. $37.50.

Early... read more

On March 15, 1938, three days after German troops crossed into Austria, Adolf Hitler appeared on the balcony of the Hofburg, Vienna’s imperial palace, to announce the Anschluss, the incorporation... read more

In the early morning hours of March 12, 1938, German troops poured across the Austrian border, fulfilling Adolf Hitler’s dream of Anschluss, the incorporation of Austria into the Third Reich. When... read more